Amazon is the last of the big techs to report earnings. You can find its press release here. I’ll show my notes through the charts below. In short, AWS, advertising and Prime’s price hike are the only bright spots while the rest could be best characterized as concerning, if not downright disappointing. Of course, Amazon is famously playing the long game, but as FCF is significantly down while ex-AWS revenue is tremendously down, management needs to send some positive signals soon.
Revenue’s growth decelerated significantly after being boosted by Covid
International sales dipped for the first time while AWS continues its hot streak, recording more than $62 billion in revenue in 2021
Both North America and International were in the red in Q4 FY2021. AWS is the sole reason why Amazon has a positive operating margin
North America and International have seen decreasing growth for the last three quarters. International even contracted in Q4 FY2021. AWS is impressive
Online Stores contracted modestly in Q4 FY2021
Negative TTM Free Cash Flow
Amazon spent $72 billion in shipping costs in 2021. It crossed $20 billion a quarter mark in Q4 2021
Amazon spent more than $13 billion in Video and Music expenses
A few days ago, Amazon released the results of their Q1 FY2021 and did not disappoint. You can find their results here. Below are some of my takeaways and charts for illustration purposes
A growing giant
This is the first quarter where Amazon’s average 4-quarter rolling net sales exceeded $100 billion. Think about the scale for a month. In other words, for the past 365 days, Amazon generated more than $1 billion per day on average. What’s more impressive is that their YoY growth has been on an upward trajectory for the past few quarters, hitting 44% in the recently reported one. That’s the kind of growth you often see at companies at a much smaller scale, not a company that is well on track to produce half a trillion dollars in sales a year.
I don’t know where their next growth will come from and that may be the scary thing about this behemoth
Among the three main segments, North America is the biggest in net sales, almost double the combined figures from AWS and International. Bewilderingly, it has been growing at a higher clip than AWS in the past four quarters, lacking behind International, whose YoY growth just hit an astounding 60% in this quarter. If you look at the segments’ size, their growth figures and growth trajectory, it’s not straightforward to say which one will drive Amazon’s growth in the future. If Amazon can crack the Grocery and Last-Mile code in the US, it will be huge for their North America numbers. In terms of International, there is still a lot more to gain. Take Vietnam as an example. My country’s retail market is huge and growing fast. Yet, there is no such equivalent of Amazon. There are indeed big players such as Shopee, Tiki or Lazada, but they are eCommerce players and the breadth of their offerings isn’t as extensive as what Amazon can offer. Plus, if you ever try the apps of these companies, you’ll chuckle and say to yourself: if somebody can offer a better shopping experience, there is a lot of money to be made here. Lastly, global companies are going through digital transformation, a trend that is accelerated by Covid. It’ll be a boon to AWS’ business.
There are bull cases to make for each of these segments. I honestly cannot tell where the next growth will come from. Not because there isn’t. But because there are more than one obvious answer. For good measure, all three are now profitable. International used to be the black sheep, but it has been profitable for the past four quarters.
Advertising and 3rd party are growing fast, but don’t sleep on physical stores
Among the business lines, 3rd party and advertising, both high-margin, were the fastest growing with the former growing at 64% YoY and the latter at 70% in this quarter. At $80 billion annual run-rate, 3rd party is highly impressive, growing at 64% YoY. Amazon doesn’t break down 3rd party for domestic and international markets, but it’s not strange to think that as Amazon gains foothold in more overseas markets, more merchants will want to get on the platform. Meanwhile, advertising almost reaches a run rate of $25 billion, growing 4x in the last 3 years. Impressive as it is, there is still plenty of room to grow, both domestically and internationally. As Amazon’s online stores attract millions of buyers, advertisers will be interested in promoting their products or services on a platform where the intention to buy is high.
Even though physical stores’ growth doesn’t look particularly great, don’t sleep on them. Physical stores were first reported by Amazon in 2017. They are relatively new and I consider them strategic investments from the company. Amazon will not be able to compete with Walmart in groceries’ scale and the network of stores as well as fulfillment centers across the country. Hence, they will likely use technology and efficiency in delivery as competitive advantages. Hard to pull off, cashierless stores will save Amazon on personnel costs and provide a differentiated shopping experience for customers. They may also play a role in Amazon’s network of middle and last mile delivery. Eventually, customers may still receive cheaper groceries from Walmart, but some may be more interested in a different shopping experience and expedited delivery from Amazon.
In the United States, we’re delivering out of our Whole Foods stores, and we’ve engaged — we’ll be allowed to pick up a greater expansion of pickup at Whole Foods stores. Amazon Fresh became a free Prime benefit, as you know, in the late part of 2019. And customers really adopted it and continue to see strong growth. So I think on the fresh stores, it’s a little too early. The stores themselves, we’re confident that the Just Walk Out technology that will be a boon, a benefit to customers.
Source: Amazon’s CFO from Q1 FY 2021 Earnings Call
Arguably few have made headlines this week more than Jeff Bezos, the founder and current CEO of Amazon. The company announced yesterday that Bezos was stepping down in Q3 this year and is going to be replaced by Andy Jassy, the boss of AWS. While it is surprising, I hardly find the news shocking. Bezos hasn’t been on the company’s earnings calls for years. He appeared in front of Congress last year, showing that he didn’t know in details the company that he founded and is still running. To be clear, I don’t blame him. If he doesn’t spend much time in the office yet rather spends it on other projects that interest him and the company still does exceptionally well, why not? In his letter to the whole company, Bezos said:
I’m excited to announce that this Q3 I’ll transition to Executive Chair of the Amazon Board and Andy Jassy will become CEO. In the Exec Chair role, I intend to focus my energies and attention on new products and early initiatives.
As much as I still tap dance into the office, I’m excited about this transition. Millions of customers depend on us for our services, and more than a million employees depend on us for their livelihoods. Being the CEO of Amazon is a deep responsibility, and it’s consuming. When you have a responsibility like that, it’s hard to put attention on anything else. As Exec Chair I will stay engaged in important Amazon initiatives but also have the time and energy I need to focus on the Day 1 Fund, the Bezos Earth Fund, Blue Origin, The Washington Post, and my other passions. I’ve never had more energy, and this isn’t about retiring. I’m super passionate about the impact I think these organizations can have.
If you’re more interested in the strategic direction of the company and side projects, why not giving opportunity to someone else who is hungry for the top job and to manage the day-to-day operation. Plus, I don’t imagine he enjoyed being called to testify in front of Congress, especially when the regulatory scrutiny on big tech companies has intensified. And I think Amazon is in a great shape to continue to grow with the new CEO. Here is why:
Amazon recorded $125 billion in sales in Q4 FY2020, making its four-quarter rolling average revenue now almost $100 billion. For Q1 FY2021, Amazon’s guidance is to generate between $100 and $106 billion in revenue. More impressively, the quarterly revenue grew at least 37% YoY each. In terms of major business segments, North America is still the biggest piece of the pie, yet it still outgrows International and AWS. The latter is now a $45 billion run-rate business. Looking deeper at the business lines, Online Stores, 3rd Party Marketplace and AWS are still the three biggest, but the fastest growing is Advertising, which stands at the run rate of $21 billion. In terms profitability, Amazon used to run in the red with International. Not any more. International has been profitable for the last 3 consecutive quarters, making all three major business segments of Amazon profitable.
Furthermore, Amazon in Q4 FY2020 posted $31 billion free cash flow TTM, which is only slightly less than 50% of their operating cash flow TTM. It implies a heavy CAPEX back into the business. Also, Amazon, on average, spends about $15 billion a quarter on shipping costs, which constitutes around 23% of the combined sales of its Online Stores and 3rd Party Marketplace. While it’s a lot of money, if it helps Amazon achieve great services and customer satisfaction in multiple markets, it will be a tough challenge for anyone who wants to compete with them.
In my view, the results that Amazon boasted are nothing, but highly impressive. The company has a stellar reputation with consumers and owns the relationship. That’s why it can sell advertising, subscriptions, its own goods and goods of other parties. There are still a lot of room to grow. Not only can it still gain market share in the retail market in the US, but it can also expand internationally into more countries and continue its current profitability overseas. AWS can still grow, especially when Covid-109 has spurred companies to become digital. The brand, the scale and the infrastructure that Amazon put in place are gigantic advantages that aren’t easy for challengers to overcome. The culture that Bezos has instilled in the last 27 years is still there and even though he is passing the CEO torch, he is still around to take actions, if necessary.
Expensify CEO emailed his 10 million customers and asked them to vote for Biden. Though there are some who disagreed with him, they appreciated the openness. This is an example of how it should be done
Google announced Google One, a bundle that includes a VPN service, 2T of storage on Google Gmail & Drive and other benefits. Currently only available to Android devices in the US
Waymo made an unprecedented move to detail their behind-the-scene work on autonomous vehicles, including crashes and near-misses
Amazon continues to amaze me with another blow-out quarter in Q3 FY2020. Their total net sales increased by 37% compared to the same period a year ago, reaching $96 billion, while Operating Income increased by 96% from $3.2 billion in Q3 FY2019 to $6.2 billion this quarter. It’s an extraordinary growth for a company that generated more than $1 billion a day in net sales this quarter. Their gross margin in general didn’t change much from a year ago, but their operating margin increased by almost 200 basis points from 4.5% in Q3 2019 to 6.4% in Q3 FY2020. While the high level margin doesn’t look impressive, the devils are in the details if we look closer at their segments.
If we look at Norther America, International and AWS, all three were profitable this quarter with International, traditionally a money loser, being in the black for the second quarter in a row. AWS continues to be responsible for most of Amazon’s operating income as it carries a sweet 30% operating margin, compared to a meagre low single-digit from the other segments. Interestingly, AWS’s growth was the slowest among the three segments, recorded at 29%, compared to 39% of North America and 37% of International.
If we look at the results at a deeper level, specifically at the breakdowns into Online Stores, Physical Stores, AWS, 3rd party marketplace, Advertising and Subscriptions, the only area with negative growth in revenue is Physical Stores. 3rd party marketplace, Advertising and Online Stores notched the biggest growth, in that order, followed by Subscriptions and AWS. Regarding Subscriptions, Amazon reported that Prime now has 150 million subscribers with the service coming to its 20th country in Turkey.
Internationally, the number of Prime members who stream Prime Video grew by more than 80% year-over-year in the third quarter, and international customers more than doubled the hours of content they watched on Prime Video compared to last year.
Even though Amazon is the master of operating at scale, innovating and squeezing efficiency from every step, I do think the expansion of Prime internationally helps with the increased performance of the International segment which has been profitable in two consecutive quarters. Of course, the decision makers at Amazon have data to see which markets can be improved by launching a high-margin subscription that makes customers stick around longer and shop more. So I wouldn’t surprised if Prime played a role in bolstering the profitability of Amazon’s International segment. So far, there are only 20 countries where Amazon Prime is available. When that number gets bigger, I predict that Amazon will be even bigger and more profitable than it already is; which is both admirable and scary.
When it comes to Amazon, advertising is unlikely the top 3 or 5 services that come to mind. Nonetheless, the segment brought in almost $5.4 billion this quarter, at the growth rate of a whopping 51%. To put that in consideration, neither Pinterest, Twitter nor Snapchat recorded even $1 billion in revenue in the most recent quarter (all of these companies reported results this month). Even Microsoft’s search advertising revenue this quarter was at only $1.8 billion, down from about $2 billion from the year before. As Amazon has an excellent relationship with customers (in general) and customers, when searching, already have intention to buy, this advertising business will not stop here. In fact, I do think it will continue to grow nicely in the future. A short while ago, I wrote about Amazon Shopper Panel, a new initiative by Amazon. The service will compensate shoppers if they send the company 10 eligible non-Amazon at-store receipts every month. This initiative, if done well, will empower Amazon with an unparalleled understanding of consumers, down to even the line items of a receipt. This understanding will bolster their advertising machine even more.
Amazon admitted that 2020 has been a big year for capital investments. The company aims to grow its fulfillment and logistics network by 50%, plowing around $12-13 billion in CAPEX this quarter or over $30 billion so far in 2020. That is an extraordinary amount of money allocated in growing assets. Not many companies even have that kind of numbers in revenue, let alone CAPEX. On top of that, Amazon reported that its shipping costs reached $15 billion this quarter. Fulfillment and shipping are hard as they are resource-intensive and require a mastery in operations to achieve the necessary efficiency. Any competitor that wishes to challenge Amazon needs to have a pocket deep enough to absorb these expenses; which constitutes a competitive advantage for the biggest e-Commerce player in the US. In the end, how many companies in the world could claim they generated $55 billion in trailing 12-month (TTM) Operating Cash Flow or $29 billion in trailing 12-month free cash flow?
In short, the business looks to be in a fantastic shape with amazing growth at a massive scale. Plus, there is plenty of room to grow for Amazon in the future with International expansion, Prime in more markets and advertising. Jeff Bezos is now a $200 billion man. I won’t be surprised if he reaches $300 billion in net worth in the future.
Though it has made significant strides in automated driving, owners should not rely on Tesla’s driver assistance features to necessarily add safety or to make driving easier, based on Consumer Reports’ extensive testing and experience.
Most features within Tesla’s Full Self-Driving Capability suite worked inconsistently, including the Autopark self-parking system that has been around for several years.
On Thursday, Amazon released their Q2 FY 2020 results and it was nothing short of impressive. Below are my notes:
Even during the pandemic, Amazon net sales were $89 billion in Q2, up 40% YoY. In fact, if you look at their net sales in Q2 in the last 5 years, it’s an astounding 31% CAGR.
North America still led the way among their three main segments with more than $55 billion in net sales. AWS is now an annualized $43 billion business and responsible for 13% of Amazon’s total net sales. In the last 5 years, CAGR for North America, International and AWS is 33%, 23% and 39%! If you look at a deeper level, online stores were still responsible for the bulk of Amazon’s net sales while 3rd party and AWS were the next two largest segments. Advertising accounted for 5% of Amazon’s net sales. Their shares have stayed largely the same for the past 3 years,
AWS continued to account for more than half of Amazon’s operating income. Historically, Amazon lost money on their International front, but in this quarter, the segment recorded $345 million in Operating Income. Total operating income was up to more than $5.8 billion, almost up by 90% YoY. Once again, this was during a pandemic.
Shipping costs grew to more than $13.6 billion in Q2 FY 2020, from $4.56 billion in Q2 FY 2017. In the last four years, shipping costs rose at a faster pace (44% CAGR) than the combined net sales of online stores and 3rd party (28%). As share of cost of sales, shipping costs accounted for 26% of total cost of sales (AWS’ cost of sales weren’t recorded here), up from 19.5% in Q2 FY 2017. According to Amazon’s 10Q, here is how they define Cost of Sales
Cost of sales primarily consists of the purchase price of consumer products, inbound and outbound shipping costs, including costs related to sortation and delivery centers and where we are the transportation service provider, and digital media content costs where we record revenue gross, including video and music.
There are two ways to look at Amazon’s shipping costs in my opinion. First of all, the increase in Q2 FY 2020 is likely due to Covid-19. The rising trend can also come from Amazon’s effort and investment in last-mile delivery which is the most expensive delivery type. Amazon is now the fourth largest delivery service as of May 2020. If other retailers want to compete in terms of delivery, this level of commitment and investment will likely await them. In fact, Figure shows the level of capital expenditure by Amazon over the years. Just. Look. At. The. Growth!
In business, cash is king and Amazon is a phenomenal cash-generating machine. As of Q2 FY 2020, their operating cash flow trailing twelve months (TTM) stood at $51+ billion, up 42% YoY. Free Cash Flow TTM was almost $32 billion.
Additionally, AWS’ momentum is reflected in the remaining performance obligation in the last three years. Performance obligations from contracts whose original terms exceed one year stood at $41 billion as of June 2020, up from $16 billion two years ago. It’s indicative of the revenue in pipeline for AWS.
Lastly, I think this is the first time Amazon broke out their expenses for digital content, including video and music.
The total capitalized costs of video, which is primarily released content, and music as of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2020 were $5.8 billion and $6.1 billion. Total video and music expense was $1.8 billion and $2.8 billion in Q2 2019 and Q2 2020, and $3.5 billion and $5.2 billion for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2020.
In summary, I am in awe of Amazon as a well-oiled company. Even at its size, the company seems to have a lot of good things going in their direction and real competitive advantages. The retail and cloud markets are big enough for Amazon to grow more in the future.
Disclaimer: I own Amazon stocks in my personal portfolio.
Structured procrastination means shaping the structure of the tasks one has to do in a way that exploits this fact. The list of tasks one has in mind will be ordered by importance. Tasks that seem most urgent and important are on top. But there are also worthwhile tasks to perform lower down on the list. Doing these tasks becomes a way of not doing the things higher up on the list. With this sort of appropriate task structure, the procrastinator becomes a useful citizen. Indeed, the procrastinator can even acquire, as I have, a reputation for getting a lot done.